morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis

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The digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was generated to deduce the morphometric parameters like drainage basin area, drainage density, drainage order, relief and network diameter in GIS environment. Geographical Information System (GIS) have proved to be an efficient tool in the delineation of drainage pattern for water resources management and its planning. The variation of stream length ratio might be due to differences in slope/gradients and topographic conditions of the area. It has been further divided into 11 s order morpho-units, namely Thema-Pangan Water Divide, Daukiduba-Pangan Confluence, Jogidah Upland, Kameshwar Nagar UPLAND, Kursa valley, Chutru upland, Biropani valley, Ramanuj Ganj upland, Chumki-Kanhar confluence, Budhudih hills, and Bhandaria upland. Earth Surf Process Landform 24:799–808, John Wilson JS, Chandrasekar N, Magesh NS (2012) Morphometric analysis of major Sub Watersheds in Aiyar & Karai Pottanar Basin, Central Tamil Nadu, India using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques. This technique requires two input model parameters: DEM and a minimum upstream area in hectares, which is the minimum drainage area required to create a stream segment (Magesh et al. The symbol AW denotes Tropical Swanah region. It is inferred that the Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin. US Geol Survey Water Supply Paper 1531-B:198, Horton RE (1932) Drainage basin characteristics. A number of waterfalls are located along the track of the river. The Kanhar originates at Gidha-Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh. 2011; Gayen et al. Appl Water Sci:1–11. Horton’s law (1945) of stream length points out that mean stream length segments of each of the successive orders of a basin tends to approximate a direct geometric series with stream length increasing towards higher order of streams. The fast emerging spatial information technology, remote sensing, GIS, and GPS have effective tools to overcome most of the problems of land and water resources planning and management rather than conventional methods of data process (Rao et al. 1998), soil and rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989) and landscape evolution processes. The Kanhar River basin is automatically extracted from the ASTER DEM data with a spatial resolution of 15 m using the georeferenced SOI toposheets. Triangular irregular network (a), drainage density (b) and DTM from different angles for perspective views are shown in the Fig. The monsoon brings sufficient rains. Earth Surf Process 14:671–690, Krishnamurthy J, Srinivas G, Jayaram V, Chandrasekhar MG (1996) Influence of rock type and structure in the development of drainage networks in typical hard rock terrain. The morphometric analysis of a drainage system is necessary in understanding the hydrological behavior of the watersheds. 2010). This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). The output of the drainage network is smoothened using a smooth line tool in ArcGIS-9.3. Bull Geol, Soc Am 63, Strahler AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Bull Geol Soc Am 56:275–370, Hurtrez JE, Sol C, Lucazeau F (1999) Effect of drainage area on hypsometry from an analysis of small-scale drainage basins in the Siwalik hills (central Nepal). Older Alluvium 5. Morphometric analysis is best method for isolation of problem through which precise descriptions of the geometry of landforms could be harnessed as data could be collected, organized, and analyzed and visualized using remote sensing integrated with GIS techniques to resolve the applications. It is the home to various tribes and natives which lived here since long. The stream frequency value of the Kanhar basin is 2.45 km/km2. The slope elements, in turn, are controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. Watershed area by using RS and GIS, HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES FOR GROUND WATER PROSPECTS USING IRS -1D, LISS III IMAGE, IN PARTS OF AGRA DISTRICT ALONG THE YAMUNA RIVER, U.P., INDIA, EVOLUTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND SLOPES IN BADLANDS AT PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY, Watershed Prioritization and Reservoir Sedimentation Using Remote Sensing Data, EROSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STREAMS AND THEIR DRAINAGE BASINS; HYDROPHYSICAL APPROACH TO QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY, Integrated approach of using remote sensing and GIS to study watershed prioritization and productivity, Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basin and channel networks, International journal of multidisciplinary and current research, View 5 excerpts, references background and methods, View 8 excerpts, references background and methods, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Detailed morphometric study of all sub-watersheds shows dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which thus indicate homogenous lithology and variations of values of Rb among the sub-watersheds attributed to difference in topography and geometric development. The morphometric analysis is carried by the measurement of linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins. 2013. In winter the temperatures does not go below 18 °C. Son River plays an important role in increasing the catchment area of Ganga River. This change might be attributed to variation in slope and topography, indicating the late youth stage of geomorphic development in the streams of the Kanhar basin (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. Gajbhiye, S., Mishra, S.K. It is noted that Lsm value of any stream order is greater than that of the lower order and less than that of its next higher order in the basin. 2011). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India. The morphometric parameters of basin can address linear, areal and relief aspects. Lower Kanhar plain (less than 250 m): it is the lowest area being drained by Lauwa, Kanhar, Hathinala and small tributaries of Kanhar River. DOI: 10.22271/chemi.2020.v8.i3m.9330 Corpus ID: 219654098. Upper Kanhar plain (650–1,050 m): This area forms the confluence zone of many rivers which join Kanhar from different directions as the upper area and acts as vertical divide between these small rivers where the height of the area is about 1,000 m. It is a dense forested area also because of the nature of the terrain which restricts transformation from one place to another. Trans Am Geophys Union 38:913–920, Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channelnetworks. Besides, the quantitative analysis of drainage system is an important aspect of characteristic of watershed (Strahler 1964). Where two first-order stream segments join, they form a second-order stream segment and so on. Co., New York, pp 235–274, Cox RT (1994) Analysis of drainage-basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas of possible quaternary tilt-block tectonics: an example from the Mississippi embayment. In: Chorley RJ (ed) Spatial analysis in geomorphology. To evaluate the drainage basin morphometry, various parameters like stream number, stream order, stream length, stream length ratio, bifurcation ratio, basin length, basin area, relief ratio, elongation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor and circulatory ratio, etc., have been analysed using the standard mathematical formulae given in Table 1. pp 98–116, Gayen S, Bhunia GS, Shi PK (2013) Morphometric analysis of Kangshabati-Darkeswar Interfluves area in West Bengal, India using ASTER DEM and GIS techniques. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Mean stream length (km) of sub-watershed of Kanhar basin based on stream order is shown in the Table 5. The drainage density of the Kanhar basin is 1.72 km/km2, which indicates that basin area has a highly resistant permeable subsurface material with intermediate drainage and low to moderate relief. Rf value of the Kanhar basin is 0.18 (Table 2). Details of stream order of several tributaries of Kanhar River and their sub-watershed area are shown in the Table 2. Withanage, N.D.K. They appeared to have been formed by Archaean rocks. Digitization work has been carried out for entire analysis of basin morphometry using GIS software (ArcGIS ver: 9.0). Drainage provides a basic to understand initial gradient, variation in rock resistance, structural control, geological and geomorphologic history of the drainage basin or watershed. Methuen, London, Clarke JI (1996) Morphometry from Maps. This is mainly due to the diversity of slope and relief pattern of the basin. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. The region is characterized by dominance of moderately low absolute relief moderate drainage frequency, moderate relative relief, moderate dissection index, coarse drainage density moderate slope. The morphometric analysis is done successfully through measurement of linear, aerial, relief, gradient of channel network and contributing ground slope of the basin (Nautiyal 1994; Nag and Chakraborty, 2003; Magesh et al. Reddy et al. Topographic map (53 O/9) of 1964 on 1:50000 scale was utilized to delineate the basin boundary and drainage pattern was extracted from Digital Elevation Model (DEM), thus to identify precisely basin characteristics using Geographic Information System (GIS). 1996). Manual extraction of drainage network and assigning the stream order from a published Survey of India (SOI) topographic map and from georeferenced satellite data for a large area is a time taking tedious exercise. Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite to any hydrological study. J Mt Sci 10(1):731–741, Evans IS (1972) General geomorphometry, derivatives of altitude, and descriptive statistics. Morphometric analysis provides a quantitative description of drainage system which is animportant aspect of watershed char- acterization. Erosion risk parameters can be measured and calculated using DEM’s and Arc GIS software. Higher slope is identified in southern part of the Kanhar basin where it originates. The processed DEM was used successfully for generating the stream network and other supporting layers (Mesa 2006; Magesh et al. The region is characterized by dominance of moderate absolute relief and drainage frequency, low relative relief and dissection index, moderately fine drainage density and moderate slope. Bonfring Int J Ind Eng Manag Sci 2(special issue 1):8–15, Kelson KI, Wells SG (1989) Geologic influences on fluvial hydrology and bedload transport in small mountainous watersheds, northern New Mexico, USA. 2013). J Geol 77:397–414, Singh KN (1980) Quantitative analysis of landfroms and settlement distribution in southern uplands of eastern Uttar Pradesh (India). GIS and image processing techniques can be employed for the identification of morphological features and analyzing properties of basin. Different sub-watershed of Kanhar River basin is shown in the Fig. Morphometric analysis of Barpani River basin has been done using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing techniques. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597–646, Schumm SA (1963) Sinuosity of alluvial rivers in the great plains.

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