Legal | Strong common standards would make it more difficult for Beijing to ostracize those who stand up for basic rights and freedoms. Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka have all taken steps in the right direction to combat human trafficking; however, there is a need to look closely at country specific laws to understand where the gaps lie. To be sure, the Chinese government and Communist Party are not today’s only threats to human rights, as the Human Rights Watch World Report shows. Moreover, the Trump administration’s misguided withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council because of concerns for Israel has paved the way for the Chinese government to exert greater influence over this central institution for the defense of rights. Those vast resources buttressing autocratic rule negate the ability of people across China to have any say in how they are governed. Where others see people facing persecution whose rights need defending, China’s rulers see a potential precedent of rights enforcement that could return to haunt them. Abroad, it uses its growing economic clout to silence critics and to carry out the most intense attack on the global system for enforcing human rights since that system began to emerge in the mid-20th century. A nightmarish system has already been built in Xinjiang, the northwestern region that is home both to some 13 million Muslims—Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and other Turkic minorities—and to the most intrusive public monitoring system the world has ever known. They allow little if any input from people who might be harmed. Few today believe that self-serving rationale, but most governments have found new ways to justify the status quo. Beijing was long focused on building a “Great Firewall” to prevent the people of China from being exposed to any criticism of the government from abroad. In 2016, 13 states required all K-12 schools to teach human trafficking … The point of these show tours was not to be convincing; it was to give governments an excuse not to criticize Beijing.  Small steps toward the rule of law have been replaced by the Communist Party’s traditional rule by law. For national, bi- and multilateral laws and agreements on human trafficking involving China, please see the resource section. Hollywood is increasingly censoring its films for Beijing’s sensibilities, such as the digital removal of a Taiwan flag from Tom Cruise’s bomber jacket in the recent sequel to the 1986 movie “Top Gun.”. History of Slavery and Trafficking in Persons. One million officials and party cadre have been mobilized as uninvited “guests” to regularly “visit” and stay in the homes of some of these Muslim families to monitor them. According to Europol, between 2015 and 2016 China was among the top five non-EU countries of registered victims of human trafficking in the EU and the top source for suspected traffickers. The Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China prohibits many trafficking activities, including abducting and trafficking women or children, buying abducted women or children, forced labor, forced prostitution, and luring girls under fourteen into prostitution. Sex trafficking victims in the country are from all ethnic groups in Vietnam and foreigners. Some governments—including those of Bangladesh, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sierra Leone—have begun backing away from BRI projects because they do not look economically sensible. It doesn’t matter where I am, or what passport I hold. Governments committed to human rights should also stop treating China as a respectable partner. For every Lee Kwan Yew, the late Singaporean leader who is often mentioned by proponents of autocratic rule, there are many more—Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi of Egypt, Omar al-Bashir of Sudan, or Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea—who led their country to ruin. BRI projects—known for their “no strings” loans—largely ignore human rights and environmental standards. Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific airlines threatened to fire employees in Hong Kong who supported or participated in the 2019 pro-democracy protests there. , Under the Criminal Law as it existed before the Ninth Amendment, the buyer of an abducted woman or child might be exempt from criminal punishment if the buyer did not obstruct the woman from returning home of her own will, or maltreat the child or obstruct the child’s rescue. Never mind that the history of unaccountable governments is littered with economic devastation. Everybody [who participates in the student salon] is scared. WeChat, a social-media platform combined with a messaging app widely used by Chinese people at home and abroad, censors political messages and suspends users’ accounts on political grounds even if they are based outside China. In particular, paragraph 2 of the article provides that luring girls under the age of fourteen into prostitution is subject to over five years’ imprisonment and a fine. The Supreme People’s Court (SPC), the Supreme People’s Procuratorate (SPP), the All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF), and several other central government departments and agencies are required to support the MPS in this regard. Numerous government ministries as well as international and domestic agencies and organisations work to combat trafficking patterns in China. Despite decades of impressive economic growth in China, driven by hundreds of millions of people finally emancipated to lift themselves out of poverty, the Chinese Communist Party is running scared of its own people. In many armed conflicts, such as in Syria and Yemen, warring parties blatantly disregard the international rules designed to spare civilians the hazards of war, from the ban on chemical weapons to the prohibition against bombing hospitals. Ominously, the surveillance state is exportable. Despite the Chinese government’s power and hostility to human rights, its ascent as a global threat to rights is not unstoppable. That tendency is only compounded by Beijing’s deliberate effort to enlist Chinese citizens abroad to propagate its views and to monitor each other and report any criticism of Xi Jinping’s rule. Do those people feel emboldened or disillusioned by the visit? Unlike most trafficking victims, Do was able to choose from a line of potential husbands who came to her sister's house. 3. At the UN Human Rights Council, China routinely opposes virtually every human rights initiative that criticizes a particular country unless it is watered down enough to secure that government’s consent. In response, girls and younger women from poorer countries on China’s geographic periphery are being tricked into illegal and often abusive “marriages” by unscrupulous brokerage networks. Officials boast of the country’s economic progress, but they censor information about its widening income inequality, discriminatory access to public benefits, selective corruption prosecutions, and the one in five children left behind in rural areas as their parents seek work in other parts of the country. For example, Beijing has been clear that it will not tolerate pressure on Myanmar, despite a UN fact-finding mission’s conclusion that Myanmar’s top military leaders should be investigated and prosecuted for genocide. The staged exhibition was often so preposterous as to be self-refuting, as when a group of inmates was forced to sing, in English, the children’s song “If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands!”. Fulfilling a ... China and Eastern Europe. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has been unwilling to publicly demand an end to China’s mass detention of Turkic Muslims, while heaping praise on Beijing’s economic prowess and the BRI. Over generations this policy drove a demographic disaster: China now has 30 to 40 million more men than women. Beijing also flooded the speakers list reserved for civil society organizations with government-sponsored groups tasked with lauding its record. The pressure has been felt all the way to the top. One can no longer pretend that China’s suppression of independent voices stops at its borders. Women and children from Myanmar, Vietnam, Human trafficking in China is a lucrative international 1. Traffickers are denying nearly 25 million people their fundamental right to freedom, forcing them to live enslaved and toil for their exploiter’s profit. In fact, the Chinese Communist Party has shown that economic growth can reinforce a dictatorship by giving it the means to enforce its rule—to spend what it takes to maintain power, from the legions of security officials it employs to the censorship regime it maintains and the pervasive surveillance state it constructs. World leaders who visited China, including those who see themselves as human rights champions, have not performed significantly better. The provision also applies to those who facilitate recruiting or transport, or assist by other means in forced labor. They prioritize their power, their families, and their cronies. , The MPS is primarily responsible for combating trafficking crimes in China. And the Chinese companies that build and help run the detention camps in Xinjiang, and any company that exploits the labor of prisoners or provides the surveillance infrastructure and big data processing, should be exposed and pressured to stop. While China’s internal migrant population, estimated to exceed 252 million people, exhibits vulnerabilities to exploitation, the lack of available data makes it difficult to determine the prevalence and evolving patterns of human trafficking within the country. Along with Russia, China opposed—though unsuccessfully—the Security Council even discussing Venezuela’s humanitarian crisis. If they are attentive to Saudi or Russian efforts to buy legitimacy, why not similar Chinese efforts? That led to the convenient fiction that there was no need to press Beijing about its repression; it was sufficient to trade with it. It has been recommended that China vigorously investigate, prosecute, and impose prison sentences on perpetrators of sex trafficking; update the legal framework concerning the criminzaliztion of sex trafficking, including the facilitation of prostitution involving children younger than the age of 18; expand efforts to institute proactive, formal procedures to systematically … The report states that human trafficking can be regarded as forced labour, and so the estimates captures the full realm of human trafficking for labour and sexual exploitation (page 13). China's harvesting of detainees' organs serves a booming transplant trade that is worth some $1 billion a year, according to an international tribunal. Often working in tandem with Russia, China also has taken an increasingly regressive approach to any action on human rights in the Security Council, where it has veto power. The goal of maintaining the flow of students from China, who often pay full tuition, can easily become an excuse for universities to avoid uncomfortable subjects. Under serious circumstances, the punishment is no less than ten years’ or life imprisonment and a fine or confiscation of property. For example, until a UN fact-finding mission is created, reporting by the UN high commissioner for human rights as well as the Human Rights Council’s experts is crucial. Aided by the frequent absence of alternative investors, the BRI has secured the Chinese government considerable good will among developing countries, even though Beijing has been able to foist many of the costs onto the countries that it purports to help. Independent journalism is no more. The apparent aim is to strip Muslims of any adherence to their faith, ethnicity, or independent political views. Data it collects are used to determine who is detained for “re-education.” In the largest case of arbitrary detention in decades, one million or more Turkic Muslims have been deprived of their freedom, placed in an indefinite detention of forced indoctrination. Detainees’ ability to recapture their freedom depends on persuading their jailers that they are Mandarin-speaking, Islam-free worshipers of Xi and the Communist Party. Chinese officials should be made to feel that they will never gain the respectability they crave so long as they persecute their people. It has a number of central government departments and agencies as its member units, including the Central Office for Comprehensive Management of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice. The Chinese Communist Party has long sought to monitor people for any sign of dissent, but the combination of growing economic means and technical capacity has led to an unprecedented regime of mass surveillance. Online conversation has been curtailed and replaced with orchestrated sycophancy. \\server05\productn\U\UST\6-1\UST112.txt unknown Seq: 3 15-JUN-09 12:39 2008] HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CHINA 249 business that is expanding due to the aggressive implementation of the Nationally, public policy and media attention demonstrate efforts to expand the recognition of and response to human trafficking (Francino-Olsen, 2019). Their foreign bank accounts should be frozen. Elsewhere, autocratic populists gain office by demonizing minorities, and then retain power by attacking the checks and balances on their rule, such as independent journalists, judges, and activists. Some leaders, such as US President Donald Trump, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, bridle at the same body of international human rights law that China undermines, galvanizing their publics by shadow boxing with the “globalists” who dare suggest that governments everywhere should be bound by the same standards. The China-founded Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is not much better. This fear underpins the impunity that China has come to enjoy in international circles despite the sweeping nature of its abuses. 6. The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) is primarily responsible for combating crimes of trafficking. The red-carpet treatment for Chinese officials should be conditioned on real progress on human rights. (3) Estimated global annual profits made from the exploitation of … The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking is divided into eight key sections: 1. They should leverage their membership in such organizations as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to push for the highest human rights standards in development rather than to enable a global race to the bottom. The above-described findings are products of scholarly efforts to achieve broader understandings related to human trafficking and trafficking responses. The office of the Joint Conference is located in the Criminal Investigation Bureau of the MPS, and the Director-General of the Bureau is in charge of the office. If China succeeds in leaving the UN toothless on human rights, all will suffer. They include a collection of dictators, autocrats, and monarchs who themselves have an abiding interest in undermining the human rights system that might hold them to account. US President Trump has been more interested in embracing friendly autocrats than defending the human rights standards that they flout.  COMMIT: The Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking, United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, http://www.no-trafficking.org/commit.html (last visited Feb. 5, 2016), archived at https://perma.cc/F4NW-V93F. In a video message to participants, Ghada Waly, Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , said more than 70 per cent of detected trafficking victims are women and girls, while nearly one third are children. We thought this institution could protect our rights when the government violates them. An extraordinary threat requires a commensurate response—and much still can be done to defend human rights worldwide from Beijing’s frontal attack. //Www.Notip.Org.Cn/Article/Details.Asp? LanFlag=1 & News Id=7382 & classid=20 & BID=, archived at https: //perma.cc/UN8T-D8FW fear, it that... Extends overseas governments tend to put their own domestic challenges, mount a haphazard defense becoming global! 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